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Selected Journal articles

  1. Yin Luo, Miaomiao Li and Ding Xu (2022). A disease-causing human osteoprotegerin mutant exists in hyper-oligomerized forms. Scientific Report. 2022 Sep 10;12(1):15279.  doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-19522-9.

  2. Miaomiao Li, Chih Yean Ong, Christophe J Langouët-Astrié, Lisi Tan, Ashwni Verma, Yimu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Dhaval K. Shah, Eric P. Schmidt and Ding Xu (2022). Heparan Sulfate-dependent RAGE oligomerization is indispensable for pathophysiological functions of RAGE. eLife. 2022;11:e71403 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.71403. 

  3. Xiaoxiao Zhang, Xinyue Liu, Miaomiao Li, Guowei Su, Jian Liu, Chunyu Wang, and Ding Xu (2021).  pH-Dependent and Dynamic Interactions of Cystatin C with Heparan Sulfate. Communications Biology 4(1):198. doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-01737-7. 

  4. Miaomiao Li & Ding Xu (2020). Antiresorptive activity of osteoprotegerin requires an intact heparan sulfate-binding site. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2005859117. PMID: 32636266

  5. Arnold K, Xu Y, Sparkenbaugh EM, Li M, Han X, Zhang X, Xia K, Piegore M, Zhang F, Zhang X, Henderson M, Pagadala V, Su G, Tan L, Park PW, Stravitz RT, Key NS, Linhardt RJ, Pawlinski R, Xu D# and Liu J#. Design of anti-inflammatory heparan sulfate to protect against acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Science Transl Med (2020). Mar 18;12(535). PMID 32188725.    #corresponding authors

  6. Zhang X, Ong C, Su G, Liu J, Xu D. Characterization and Engineering of S100A12–Heparan sulfate interactions. Glycobiology. (2020) doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwz111. PubMed PMID: 31942981 

  7. Yiming Xiao, Miaomiao Li, Rinzhi Larocque, Fuming Zhang, Anju Malhotra, Jianle Chen, Robert J. Linhardt, Lars Konermann, and Ding Xu (2018). Dimerization Interface of Osteoprotegerin Revealed by Hydrogen-deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry. J Biol Chem 293 (45), 17523-17535. PMID: 30254073.

  8. Miaomiao Li, Shuying Yang, Ding Xu* (2016). Heparan Sulfate Regulates the Structure and Function of Osteoprotegerin in Osteoclastogenesis . J Biol Chem 291 (46):24160-24171. PMID: 27697839.

On the horizon


  1. Yin Luo, Huanmeng Hao, Chihyean Ong, Zhangjie Wang, Jian Liu, Lars C. Pedersen and Ding Xu (2023). Heparan sulfate promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis by inducing TRAIL oligomerization. 

  2.  Xiaoxiao Zhang, Yin Luo, Guowei Su, Miaomiao Li, Jian Liu, Lars C. Pedersen and Ding Xu (2023). Heparan sulfate inhibits the collagenase activity of cathepsin K by inducing its oligomerization. 

  3. Chihyean Ong, Miaomiao Li and Ding Xu (2023). Targeting the heparan sulfate-binding site of RAGE with monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Ding Xu and Jeffrey D. Esko (2014). Demystifying Heparan sulfate-binding proteins. 2014;83:129-57. Annual Review of Biochemistry.  PMID: 24606135

  2. Xu D, Arnold K, Liu J. Using structurally defined oligosaccharides to understand the interactions between proteins and heparan sulfate. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2018 Apr 20;50:155-161. doi: 10.1016.  PMID: 29684759. 

Selected Review articles
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